|  e-ISSN: 2791-7169

Volume 2 Issue 1 (June 2022)

Issue Information

Full Issue (Volume 2, Issue 1)

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444



Original Articles

Abundance of marine-derived fungi in nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus species

Angeli̇ca B. BERMIL, Jherry Bonn D. HAMISAIN, Albaris B. TAHILUDDIN, Rosi̇ta T. JUMDAIN, Mari̇a Li̇za B. TORING-FARQUERABAO

pp. 1 - 6   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444.01


The occurrence of ice-ice disease is among the main issues affecting Kappaphycus production. The abiotic and biotic factors have major contributions to causing this disease. As biotic factors, marine-derived fungi (MDF) are known to be capable of causing the ice-ice disease. In this study, we determined the abundance of MDF from both healthy and ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatus in the seaweed farms of Tongehat, Sibutu, Tawi-Tawi, southern Philippines, following serial dilution procedure using malt extract agar. Results revealed that the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii (3.04 x 10^4 CFU g⁻¹) had shown higher significance (p<0.05) when compared with healthy nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii (3.32 x 10^3 CFU g⁻¹). Similarly, the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. striatus (9.31 x 10^3 CFU g⁻¹) also appeared to have higher significance (p<0.01) than healthy nutrient-enriched K. striatus (6.10 x 10^2 CFU g⁻¹). In terms of seaweed species comparison, the abundance of MDF in healthy nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii had a higher significance (p<0.05) than in healthy nutrient-enriched K. striatus, and the abundance of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. alvarezii also had higher significance (p<0.05) than ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched K. striatus. The great number of MDF in ice-ice-infected nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus suggests that MDF may be potential causative agents and have the capability of inducing ice-ice disease in farmed nutrient-enriched Kappaphycus.

Keywords: Abundance, Ice-ice disease, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Kappaphycus striatus, Marine-derived fungi

Monitoring the annual change of fauna in Ilgaz Mountain Wildlife Reserve by using biodiversity indices


pp. 7 - 14   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444.02


Wildlife management, planning, and development, determining the current floristic and faunistic features in a given region are critical for future research. Biodiversity indices are tools that help to express concepts such as species richness and ecosystem richness of an area or areas numerically. Turkiye is one of the leading countries in Europe in terms of biodiversity, with many locations having a high level of diversity thanks to its fauna and flora. Kastamonu province is the unique region in the Black Sea region, consisting of four wildlife refuges, two national parks and a biodiversity hotspot. In the current study, the 4-year inventory carried out by the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks affiliated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry for the determination of wildlife species in the Ilgaz Mountain Wildlife Reserve was examined, and the number of species in the area was calculated using biodiversity indices. Results of inventories were evaluated. In the study, it was observed that species diversity decreased over the years, but the populations of some species were dominant and increased.

Keywords: Biodiversity indices, Alpha diversity, Ilgaz Mountain Wildlife Reserve, Kastamonu

The effect of white mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromerit) on diameter increment in Kazdağı fir stands

Oytun Emre SAKICI, Gonca Ece ÖZCAN, Fadime SAĞLAM, Mehmet SEKİ

pp. 15 - 23   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444.03


In this study, the effects of white mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromerit) on diameter increment in Kazdağı fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani (Asc. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Coode & Cullen) stands distributed in Kastamonu region of Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 183 sample trees (77 healthy (uninfected) and 106 infected) were selected from mistletoe-infected stands. Mistletoe infected sample trees were classified according to the mistletoe intensity groups as lightly-, moderately- and heavily-infection levels. Increment cores were taken from the sampled trees, and annual ring widths were measured for evaluation period which is the last 30 years of sample trees. Underbark diameter increments were determined for the last 10, 20 and 30 years and for also last three 10-year periods. Mistletoe infected trees were compared to healthy trees according to the mean diameter increments. As a result, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between underbark diameter increments of infected and uninfected trees. Increment losses of infected trees compared to uninfected trees were calculated as 21%, 28% and 33% for the last 30, 20 and 10 years, respectively. Similarly, significant differences were also observed for the last three 10-year periods and it was revealed that the underbark diameter increment losses were 11%, 24% and 33%, respectively. The results show that increment losses increase gradually with infection and the presence of white mistletoe negatively affects diameter increments with an increasing acceleration from the past to the present.

Keywords: Parasitic plants, Growth, Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, Kastamonu

Research on the future of forestry: A sample of EU


pp. 24 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444.04


After the industrial revolution, technological developments, unbalanced population growth and excessive consumption have become threatening to the earth. Parallel to the world population, the increasing energy consumption is also increasing rapidly. Increasing energy consumption increases CO2 emissions more and more every day. Considering the temperature increase caused by greenhouse gases, global climate change has become an important problem that concerns the whole world today. Climate change will affect forest resources and the continuity of ecosystem services more in the future. It is necessary to protect forests, which are beneficial in preventing global climate change, and to prevent deforestation. In this study, using the data between 2001 and 2020, data on carbon emissions, per capita national income, annual population growth rate, forest area, exports and imports of European Union countries were used. The data used in the study were obtained from the world bank data, food and agriculture data, and cover the 2001-2020 periods. In the study, the stationarity of the data sets of the variables was tested with the Dickey-Fuller unit root test (ADF). With the help of the model created, predictions for the forests’ future were made by using the variables used in the model for the years 2021-2040. The values obtained were compared with the values of the previous years. When the current data and the estimated values are compared, the population growth rate in EU countries is quite low and sometimes it takes negative values. It has been determined that the CO2 emission and forest area variables of EU countries are close to each other. It is seen that the forest existence of EU countries has increased and CO2 emission has decreased.

Keywords: CO2 emission, Climate change, European Union, Time series, Forecast

The impact of stain removal and bleaching on the adhesion strength of water-based varnish layers in oak

Haci İsmail KESİK, Abdullah SÖNMEZ, Mehmet BUDAKÇI, Kubulay ÇAĞATAY

pp. 32 - 37   |  DOI: 10.29329/JofBS.2022.444.05


The aim of this study is to determine the performance of water-based varnish adhesion on the process of stain removal, bleaching and impregnation applied to wood surfaces. In order to accomplish this objective, the selected sessile oak (Quercus petreae Mill.) wood samples were firstly contaminated with grease and PVAc glue, after they were cleaned. Then, the wood samples were bleached by using oxalic acid (C2H2O4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Secondly, preprocessed specimens impregnated with imersol aqua (IA) and wood protective chemicals (WP) and together both these chemicals (IA+WP). Finally, adhesion strength performance of the wood samples were tested after they covered by single component primary resin (SCPR), double component polyurethane modified with acrylic (DCAP) and double component elastic polyurethane (DCEP). The adhesion resistance of varnish layers is determined according to ASTM 4541 principles. As a result, the oil stain removal and the protective chemical applications decreased the adhesion strength on the wood surface of water-based varnish layers. Contrary, the glue stain removal and the C2H2O4 and H2O2 bleaching increased the adhesion strength. Also, it was determined that DCEP applications have the highest value in oak wood samples.

Keywords: Sessile oak, Water-based varnish, Adhesion strength, Impregnation